Skip to Main Content
Lansing Community College Library

Fire Science: Citing Sources

LCC Fire Science Program's FIRE PORTAL -- your Hot Spot to pertinent information!

APA Citation Help Online

APA Handouts

Print handouts with sample citations for the most common types of sources to have handy while you work on your paper.

Knight Cite: Citation Generator

This tool, developed by a Calvin College student, helps you format MLA, APA, or Chicago style citations.

NFPA Code citation example

Example of an APA citation of a NFPA code from the NFPA National Fire Codes Online database:

Reference list entry:

NFPA 1852: Standard on Selection, Care, and Maintenance of Open-Circuit Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA), 2019 Edition. In NFPA National Fire Codes Online. Retrieved from

Parts of citation:

NFPA code number: Title of the code, year of the edition.  In NFPA National Fire Codes Online. Retrieved from

In-Text citation within a sentence:

NFPA 1852 (2019)

In-Text citation at the end of a sentence:

(NFPA 1852, 2019).

Citing U.S. Patents

APA Style Patents - APA Manual A7.07 Patents (p. 224)

TIP: The patent number is a unique identifying code given to every patent.  It can be easily located through a web browser search engine. The title of the patent is not necessary.  Note that the inventor(s) is identified in the “References” list entry but not in the text of your paper.


Reference list entry:

Pharaon, M. (1989). U.S. Patent No. 4,858,960. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Parts of citation:
Name of inventor(s). (Date of patent) Patent number. Official source from which the information can be retrieved.

In-Text citation within a sentence:

U.S. Patent No. 4,858,960 (1989)

Text citation at the end of a sentence:

(U.S. Patent No. 4,858,960, 1989)

Set up Word for APA Format

Am I Plagiarizing?

Don't get caught plagiarizing... even by accident! The Vaughn Memorial Library of Acadia University has created this great interactive video:

APA Publication Manual